Here in this article, I will teach you how to make household soap for family use and also how to commercialize it and make some money from within your vicinity by trading these products locally.
WHAT IS SOAP?
Soap could be described using a chemical nomenclature. This is said to be the end product formed when the sodium salt, potassium salt, lithium salt, calcium salt or other salts in their group series react with fatty acid. In other words, a soap forms when alkaline (salt) reacts with fatty acids (oils) through saponified process. By this intention, soap is described as a sodium, potassium calcium or other salts of long chain fatty acid. Alkaline+fatty acid=soap. By implication, alkaline added to fatty acid equals to soap plus propane 1.23 triol.
Today, different types of soap have emerged as a result of difference in the nature of alkaline since it is this alkaline and its concentration that determines the fibrous of the mild nature of each soap. Soap can be in the shape or form of liquid (liquid soap), powder (detergent such as omo) or solid (like bar soap, cucumber soap, toilet soap or soda).
PRECAUTIONS IN SOAP MAKING:
Soap making requires a lot if care and precautions since the product required for its formation are known, strong alkaline chemicals, the sodium hydroxide in it’s solution. Sodium hydroxide or soda as it is called, is a very strong alkaline. It has by it’s nature some of the properties of strong acid which include sour taste, slippery and corrosive. By these properties, sodium hydroxide is indeed a very dangerous chemical and could lead to instant death if taken by children or adult by mistake or carelessly.
It has been established that producers of soap need to wear rubber gloves (hand gloves) since sodium hydroxide solution (caustic soda solution) must not be touched during its purchase or when put into its concentration in water or when mixing with other soap making chemicals.
Producers should always avoid contact of sodium hydroxide (soda) with the body, clothes or eyes, aluminum equipment of any kind as this chemical has the chemical strength of destroying them. If brought in contact with any aluminum equipment, sodium hydroxide (soda) reacts. Its reaction with aluminum will lead to the formation of sodium aluminate which is neither sodium nor aluminum and both will become valueless for the helpless producer.
Again, sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) is concentrated in water with the latter used to reduce the concentration of the former. It is this concentration that determines the type of soap and its quality. In bar soap, the concentration of 1275 cc is recommended.
1. BAR SOAP
EXPERIMENT ON BAR SOAP
Chemical required – measurement.
1. Caustic soda solution – 300mls
2. Palm kernel oil – 600mls
3. Colour – 3sps
4. Sodium silicate – 2sps
5. Sulphuric acid – 3sps
6. Perfume – 3sps
To do this is very simple. Don’t forget that the production equipment should be rubber or pure iron. Avoid anything aluminum.
As soon as the caustic soda comes in contact with the oil ( fatty acid), the soap will form. Don’t forget to stir vigorously maintaining one directional stir (clockwise or anticlockwise) to enable the flow of the molecules in one direction. Again, don’t forget to add the other listed chemicals in the soap production table. While that is done, still stir vigorously in one direction until a thick paste (semi-liquid) compound forms. This is the soap. Transfer into your mould and allow to harden. Then, cut into the desired shapes.
2. DETERGENT SOAP.
1. Caustic soap
2.palm kernel oil
5. Sulphuric acid
7. Thick soda ash
8. Industrial salt.
This production process involved two steps:
Measure 1kg of caustic soda, dissolve with four bottles full of water (usually beer or even wine bottle) and soak for at least 24hours (a day)
Measure two cups of palm kernel oil, mix with colour. When it had dissolved, turn into an empty plastic bowl and stir. Add a pinch of industrial salt, stir and add 5-10 drops of sulphuric acid, one cup of caustic soda solution and stir (turn with wooden spoon) very well. Then add 1kg of thick ash soda, stir and perfume, then you will produce detergent soap.
3. OMO PRODUCTION
Measure six (6) cups of palm kernel oil, add caustic soda 3½, soda ash (1-2), hydrogen peroxide ¼, ammoniac solution ⅛, perfume to taste, add colour blue, mix all together and sun to dry or if you have any other system of drying that is faster and quicker, you can use it. When dried , grate with a grating machine and sieve or filter to get smooth texture.
4. BLEACH PRODUCTION
What is required;
2. Calcium chloride,
4. Sodium chloride
For preparation, use 1 gallon of water (4 litres for home made). That gallon will go with 1 cup of margarine or those plastic type of calcium chloride and ¼ or 1/6 of sodium chloride. Mix all together when adding the alum, leave it to settle down for some hours at least for 21 hours or 12-15 hours. You then filter after that into bottle or rubber cans for use.
5. SODA SOAP PRODUCTION
What is required;
1. Caustic soda
2. Palm oil
Bleach the plan oil and you will measure one cup of the bleached palm oil, ensuring that the oil is warm and pour it into an empty bowl (that is plastic bowl, not bucket or any other metal). Measure cup of caustic soda solution and pour (turn) it into a bowl and begin to stir immediately and continuously until it becomes smooth and creamy and also free from lumps (I.e seed particles). Poul into a milk cup or other plastic cups suitable for use and allow to set for some hours before pulling out when dried so that when pulling, it might not get broken into pieces.
Ref: Entrepreneurship at work: methods of production and success guide, by Bro. Testimony C. Odugwu
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
This guide is to enable those who want to make some immediate income to do so. For a larger scale production, one need to undergo a formal training in order to achieve the set goals.
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